Referee Test

Welcome to the Referee Test!

This 2020 online Referee Test is Phase I of the USAPA Referee Training/Certification program. It tests your knowledge of the USAPA/IFP Official Tournament Rulebook and the USAPA officiating best practice procedures contained in the Referee Handbook and Line Judge Guide. It is recommended that you study these training materials prior to taking the test. As a prerequisite for the Referee Certification program, you must achieve a passing score of 90% or better on this test.

The test consists of 75 questions with a 60-minute time limit. The 75 questions are drawn from a pool of 140+ questions. The questions are shuffled at the beginning of each test, so no two tests are exactly the same. In addition, new questions are frequently added.

Pick a time to take the quiz when you can complete all the questions without interruption because the test will automatically close after 60 minutes. The test will also close when you click the "Submit" button at the end of the test, so answer all questions before submitting.

Upon completion, your score will be displayed along with your answers and the correct answer for each question you answered incorrectly. You will also receive a follow-up email showing your test score.

Note: If a test question has a "NEW in 2020" notation, this refers to either a new rule being added, or that an existing rule was revised

Good luck!


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1. (#15) (NEW in 2020)
The net posts (including connected wheels, net post legs, arms, or other support construction) are positioned out of bounds. If a ball strikes the net post it is a fault and a dead ball is declared. This does not include the net, the net cable, or rope between the net posts.
2. (#104)
In a match with a referee, the referee and/or player(s) may call a service "let". If the referee determines that a service let, called by a player, did not occur, a fault will be called against the offending player.
3. (#86)
A player hits a sharp cross-court shot that bounces in the opponent's non-volley zone. The ball then travels beyond the court and hits a net post leg (a permanent object) before the opponents can make a play on the ball. Which statement is true?
4. (#41)
A player is hitting a two-handed stroke (where both hands are in contact with the paddle) when his right hand is hit by the ball below the wrist. The ball is still in play.
5. (#89)
Each team is allowed 3 time-outs in a game to 21.
6. (#80)
A player may enter the non-volley zone at any time except when that that player is volleying the ball.
7. (#56)
A player's shoe comes off during a rally. At end of the rally, the player hurries to put their shoe back on while the partner and the opponents wait patiently. The player should be required to use a time-out.
8. (#11) (NEW in 2020)
To be considered legal, a serve must be made so that contact with the ball is not made above waist level (the navel), the arm must be moving in an upward arc and the paddle head must not be higher than the server's wrist when it strikes the ball.
9. (#99) (NEW in 2020)
After a ball bounces in a player's court, if the ball hits the horizontal bar on a temporary net system, a replay shall be called.
10. (#32)
Appeals to the referee regarding judgment calls (e.g., double bounce, double hits) will be decided by the referee. The referee may consult line judges or players to decide the outcome of the appeal.
11. (#49)
In a high-profile singles gold medal match, the referee determines the receiver should be ready and calls the score to begin the 10-second count. The server asks the referee to repeat the score, which she does. The referee continues counting. The server fails to serve before the 10 seconds expires. What is the call?
12. (#65) (NEW in 2020)
Hitting the ball into the player's side of the net without the ball crossing over to the opponent's side is a fault. The fault occurs the moment the ball hits the ground.
13. (#118) (NEW in 2020)
After game 1, Team A receives a technical foul and a point is awarded to Team B. At the start of game 2, Team B is receiving serve. Team B's starting server's partner would receive serve from the right/even court with a score of "0-1-2".
14. (#76)
A hinder is any element or occurrence that affects play, such as a stray ball that enters the court or people who disrupt play by walking across the court or playing area.
15. (#14)
When time-out is called the referee should:
16. (#81)
A player may stay inside the non-volley zone to return balls that bounce.
17. (#119)
A 2nd technical warning for any offense equates to a technical foul. A point shall be awarded to the non-offending player or team.
18. (#116)
In a sanctioned tournament, refusal to wear the provided starting server form of identification will result in a:
19. (#140)
The Starting Server shall be required to wear a visible form of identification in sanctioned tournaments.
20. (#136)
The serve is defined as: The initial strike of the ball to start the rally.
21. (#125)
The moment the ball is struck to be served, the server is allowed to step on the imaginary extension line of the sideline, or the imaginary extension line of the centerline, as long as they are not touching an area "outside" or "beyond" the imaginary extension lines.
22. (#23) (NEW in 2020)
A ball can be hit twice but only during an unintentional, continuous, single-direction stroke, by one player. If the stroke is not continuous, not single-direction, or the ball is struck by a second player, it is a fault.
23. (#48)
The act of volleying the ball includes the swing, the follow-through, and the momentum from the action. If the paddle touches the non-volley zone during the swing, it is a fault regardless of whether the touch occurred before or after contacting the ball.
24. (#111)
If a line judge makes a line call, the referee may immediately overrule the call without an appeal from any player.
25. (#100)
During a rally, Player A hits a high lob that bounces in the opponent's non-volley zone (NVZ). After bouncing in the NVZ, the ball rebounds upward and strikes the horizontal bar on the temporary net system and interferes with the player's ability to make a play on the ball. The referee should call a "let" and proceed with a replay.
26. (#135)
The referee should not call an incorrect server, incorrect position, or incorrect receiver fault, until after the ball is struck by the offending player.
27. (#92)
Officiating decisions may be appealed to the Tournament Director. After appeal, decisions of the Tournament Director are final.
28. (#126)
When doubles partners disagree on a line call, (one calls the ball "out" and the other calls the ball 'in") either player may appeal to the referee for a ruling. The appeal to the referee can be made AFTER both players have made their line calls.
29. (#35)
A ball is hit at an angle, bounces in the court, and travels beyond the sidelines. The receiver manages to return the ball, hitting a low shot (below net level) around and outside the post into the opponent’s court.
30. (#102)
It is a fault if a player deliberately carries the ball on their paddle.
31. (#128)
During the serve, the player must release the ball before paddle contact.
32. (#106)
During a rally, a player jumps across the non-volley zone (NVZ) to get closer to the net for an attempted volley, but never makes contact with the NVZ. In doing so, the player's leg crosses the plane of the net before the player strikes the ball. The referee should?
33. (#33) (NEW in 2020)
A player is allowed to reach under the net to play a ball that has bounced back over the net. Which of the following are true?
34. (#98)
After an end switch, when the 60-second time limit has expired, the referee should:
35. (#52) (NEW in 2020)
After the score is called, if the serving team changes service courts causing the receiving team to be out of position, the receiving team shall be allowed time to reposition.  The score will be re-called and a new 10-second count will begin.
36. (#68)
A medical time-out can last up to how long?
37. (#38)
A player mutters a curse word (heard by opponents) when they commit an unforced error. The referee should: (Choose the best answer)
38. (#45)
When net systems have a horizontal bar that may include a center base:
39. (#138) (NEW in 2020)
In a match with a referee, after a rally has completed, a player notices that the ball is cracked and steps on it and crushes it. What should the referee do if they saw this happen?
40. (#134)
When a rally is over, a player may appeal an opponent's line call to the referee until what point in time?
41. (#101) (NEW in 2020)
After game 1, Team B receives a technical foul and a point is awarded to Team A. At the start of game 2, the starting server for Team A would begin serving the game from the left/odd court with a starting score of "1-0-2"
42. (#10) (NEW in 2020)
The 2019 Rule 4.M.3, which stated it was a fault if the server missed the ball when trying to hit it, has been removed from the 2020 rulebook.
43. (#83)
Line judge "Out" calls should be promptly signaled by voice and hand signals, regardless of how obvious they may seem.
44. (#64)
Per the Referee Handbook, when should you give players a 15-second notice before you call the score and apply the 10-second rule?
45. (#26)
If a player receives 3 technical warnings during a match, the referee shall impose a forfeiture of the match.
46. (#31)
The referee is responsible for all decisions related to procedural and judgment calls during the match. If the players make a line call and there is a disputed line call, the players may request that the referee determine the outcome of the line call. If the referee cannot make a clear line call, the player's call stands. If doubles partners disagree (one says "in" and partner says "out") and appeal to the referee, if the referee cannot make a clear call, the ball will be declared "in".
47. (#54) (NEW in 2020)
At the start of each game, the starting server will always begin the serve from the right-hand court.
48. (#60)
The ball sails past the receiving team and neither player saw the ball land, so they are unable to make the call. They may appeal to the referee for a ruling without first making a call.
49. (#62)
If a player is accidentally injured during a rally, the referee should interrupt and stop the rally immediately.
50. (#19)
During the serve, when the ball is struck, the server's feet shall not touch the area outside the imaginary extension of the sideline or the centerline, or touch the court, including the baseline.
51. (#5) (NEW in 2020)
After game 1 has ended, Team A changes their starting server but does not change the form of identification (band) and does not inform the referee or the opponents. At the start of game 2, Team A is set to receive serve with the incorrect receiver. When should the referee call a fault?
52. (#6) (NEW in 2020)
#1) In a match without line judges, if the players, or referee upon appeal, are not able to make a line call, the ball is considered "in".
#2) In a match with line judges, if the officiating team cannot make a line call, a replay shall be called unless all players agree that the ball was "out".
53. (#78)
When an incorrect server or player position is discovered after a rally, the offending team can be faulted until the next serve occurs.
54. (#96) (NEW in 2020)
Technical warnings and technical fouls may be assessed any time during a match while the players are at the court.
55. (#141)
An athletic player runs fast toward the net and jumps to hit a volley on his side of the net. The jumping player goes over the net after hitting the ball and lands in the opponent's court. If the ball was dead before the jumping player landed in the opponent's court, which statement is true?
56. (#85)
As an aid to maintaining awareness of which team is serving, the clipboard should be held so the "clip" (clamp) end of the board is pointing toward the serving team when the score is recorded.
57. (#13) (New in 2020)
After a rally has ended, Team A does not make a line call and asks for Team B's assistance.  One player on Team B says the ball was "in" and his partner says the ball was "out".  Which of the following are true?
58. (#108)
The referee shall issue a technical warning if a player makes a threat, of any nature, to any person.
59. (#30) (NEW in 2020)
After a rally has concluded, a player/team may appeal to the referee that the opponents committed a distraction. If in the judgement of the referee the distraction contributed to the loss of the rally, a fault shall be called against the offending player/team.
60. (#12) (NEW in 2020)
At the time the ball is struck, the server's feet may not touch the court or outside the imaginary extension of the sideline or the centerline and both feet must be on the playing surface or ground behind the baseline.
61. (#71)
A team calls a time-out, puts their paddles on the court and walk towards their water bottles. You glance at the scoresheet and confirm that they have no time-outs remaining (you had advised them of that earlier). What should you do?
62. (#22)(New in 2020)
When a player faults by hitting the ball into their own side of the net and the ball does not cross over the net, when does the fault occur?
63. (#18) (NEW in 2020)
Any malfunction of a net system during play shall be considered a hinder.
64. (#113)
After the referee has called the score and the server has started their service motion, any player asking to confirm the score will have committed a fault.
65. (#105)
When an end switch occurs, the referee is permitted to remind players that no coaching is allowed.
66. (#87)
A hinder called by the referee, or a valid hinder called by a player, will result in a dead ball and a replay.
67. (#88) (NEW in 2020)
The Service Motion is defined as "The movement of the server's arm to serve the ball. The service motion may consist of a forward swing only or be a combination backswing and continuing forward swing.
68. (#129)
The 2nd bounce for a wheelchair player can be outside the court boundaries.
69. (#61)
How much time is allowed to switch ends during a game?
70. (#137)
When a player/team receives their first technical warning, it shall not result in a loss of rally or point awarded and shall be accompanied by a brief explanation of the reason for the warning. Also, the called technical warning shall have no effect on service change or side out.
71. (#70)
A ball hit around the post strikes you (the referee) in the leg. Since it appears that it would have landed in bounds, what is the call?
72. (#91)
A player standing behind the non-volley zone line stretches low to return the ball before it bounces. After starting her swing, her paddle scrapes the NVZ court surface just before making contact with the ball. This is a fault because the paddle touched the non-volley zone during the swing.
73. (#66)
You are refereeing a game when a player wearing glasses falls face down on the court. The player immediately gets up and you see that her glasses are broken and she has scratched her face and is bleeding. You should:
74. (#34)
A player standing outside the non-volley zone (NVZ) volleys the ball, but begins to lose her balance. To prevent stepping into the NVZ, she jumps over the corner and into the out of bounds area, then touches a net post while the ball is still in play.
75. (#24) (NEW in 2020)
Players may call faults on themselves or line calls to their disadvantage during or after the completion of a rally.

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